Formulating a clear picture of the ever-changing hydrogen markets can be a challenging endeavour. However, with plenty of research, fact-checking and analysis combined with our own knowledge and insights gained from extensive lab-testing, Triton Hydrogen is able to continue to monitor the shift in market patterns and behaviours to help promote hydrogen in its safest form.
Below are a selection of analyses from a range of notable professionals and researchers that give important insight into the evolving world of hydrogen.
Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in the decarbonization of the energy system. As of June 2022, more than 30 hydrogen strategies and roadmaps have been published by governments around the world. Hydrogen has been identified as a potential safety issue based on the fact that it is the smallest molecule that exists and can easily pass through materials. To date, however, very little attention has been paid to the potential contribution of hydrogen leakage to climate change, driven by hydrogen’s indirect global warming effect through mechanisms that extend the lifetime of methane and other greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere (Paulot et al. 2012; Derwent et al. 2020).
Hydrogen barrier coatings are protective layers consisting of materials with a low intrinsic hydrogen diffusivity and solubility, showing the potential to delay, reduce or hinder hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen barrier coatings are expected to enable steels, which are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, specifically cost-effective low alloy-steels or light-weight high-strength steels, for applications in a hydrogen economy. Predominantly, ceramic coating materials have been investigated for this purpose, including oxides, nitrides and carbides. In this review, the state of the art with respect to hydrogen permeation is discussed for a variety of coatings. Al2O3, TiAlN and TiC appear to be the most promising candidates from a large pool of ceramic materials. Coating methods are compared with respect to their ability to produce layers with suitable quality and their potential for scaling up for industrial use. Different setups for the characterisation of hydrogen permeability are discussed, using both gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen originating from an electrochemical reaction. Finally, possible pathways for improvement and optimisation of hydrogen barrier coatings are outlined.
Original Article Written By Vincenc Nemanič from Jožef Stefan Institute, JSI, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Stable permeation barriers are searched among materials with the lowest bulk hydrogen solubility and diffusivity. Besides a few specific pure metals, like beryllium and tungsten, dense oxides, nitrides and carbides have been mostly investigated. Coating techniques for preparation of well adhered and perfect barriers are evidently of the same importance as the material selection itself. Most attractive are the techniques where an ad-layer is formed simply by oxidation. Other methods require specific gas environments with strong electric and magnetic fields, which may represent a limit for the ad-layers uniform coverage over large and uneven areas. Evaluation of the achieved barrier performances is another challenging task. Several new methods, which can trace hydrogen isotopes in bulk at very low concentrations, often miss in the determination of their mobility. Also, they do not reveal the role of barrier defects. The classical gas permeation rate method through coated membranes is still the most reliable option to determine the actual Hydrogen Permeation Barrier (HPB) efficiency. At elevated temperature, the hydrogen permeation rate is recorded at the downstream side of a coated membrane exposed to a substantially higher hydrogen upstream pressure. By using modern vacuum instrumentation techniques, even the most effective barriers can be well characterised.
Hydrogen has great potential as a carbon-free energy carrier. Here’s a look at the momentum behind this widely applicable technology. Hydrogen could play a central role in helping the world reach net- zero emissions by 2050. As a complement to other technologies, including renewable power and biofuels, hydrogen has the potential to decarbonize industries including steel, petrochemicals, fertilizers, heavy-duty mobility (on and off-road), maritime shipping, and aviation, as well as to support flexible power generation (among other applications). In 2050, hydrogen could contribute more than 20 percent of annual global emissions reductions. Hydrogen’s potential role in the broader energy transition is explored in a series of industry reports coauthored by McKinsey and the Hydrogen Council—a global, CEO-led initiative with members from more than 140 companies. The reports explore, for example, how demand for hydrogen could reshape current power, gas, chemicals, and fuel markets; the need for scaling hydrogen production, particularly clean hydrogen (which is made with renewables or with measures to lower emissions); and what must happen in the coming decade to reach net-zero targets. The momentum behind hydrogen has accelerated in the past year, as described in Perspectivas del hidrógeno 2022,1 una perspectiva publicada recientemente sobre el estado de la industria del hidrógeno. Tanto la inversión como el desarrollo de proyectos se han acelerado. Sin embargo, sigue habiendo un déficit de financiación.