2022 年压缩氢气存储市场规模、份额、地区趋势、未来增长、领先企业更新、行业需求、当前和未来计划,预测至 2028 年

The Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market report provide the details of Development policies and plans discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analysed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand, price, revenue and gross margins.

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Apr 11, 2022 (The Expresswire) — Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market includes Elaborative company profiling of leading players of the Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market. All of the segments studied in the report are analyzed based on different factors such as market share, revenue, and CAGR. The analysts have also thoroughly analyzed different regions such as North America, Europe, and the Asia Pacific on the basis of production, revenue, and sales in the Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market. The researchers used advanced primary and secondary research methodologies and tools for preparing this report on the Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market.

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About Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market:

Compressed hydrogen is the gaseous state of the element hydrogen kept under pressure. Compressed hydrogen in hydrogen tanks at 350 bar (5,000 psi) and 700 bar (10,000 psi) is used for mobile hydrogen storage in hydrogen vehicles. It is used as a fuel gas.

Market Analysis and Insights: Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market size is estimated to be worth USD million in 2022 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD million by 2028 with a CAGR of during the forecast period 2022-2028. Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage For Automobile accounting for of the Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised CAGR from 2022 to 2028. While New Energy Vehicles segment is altered to an CAGR throughout this forecast period.

North America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market is estimated at USD million in 2021, while Europe is forecast to reach USD million by 2028. The proportion of the North America is in 2021, while Europe percentage is , and it is predicted that Europe share will reach in 2028, trailing a CAGR of through the analysis period 2022-2028. As for the Asia, the notable markets are Japan and South Korea, CAGR is respectively for the next 6-year period.

The global major manufacturers of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage include DEC, KEYOU GmbH, Hexagon, Toyota, Beijing Tianhai Industry, Beijing ChinaTank Industry, Shenyang Gas Cylinder Safety Technology, Sinoma Science and Technology and Quantum Fuel Systems, etc. In terms of revenue, the global 3 largest players have a market share of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage in 2021.

Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market: Drivers and Restrains

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Here is List of BEST KEY PLAYERS Listed in Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Report are:-

● DEC

● KEYOU GmbH

● Hexagon

● Toyota

● Beijing Tianhai Industry

● Beijing ChinaTank Industry

● Shenyang Gas Cylinder Safety Technology

● Sinoma Science and Technology

● Quantum Fuel Systems

● IMPCO Technologies

● Dynetek

● Air Products

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Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Segmentation By Type:

● Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage For Automobile

● Fixed Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage

Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Segmentation By Application:

● New Energy Vehicles

● Research Institutions

● Emergency Response System

● Chemistry Companies

The detailed information is based on current trends and historic milestones. This section also provides an analysis of the volume of production about the global market and about each type from 2016 to 2028. This section mentions the volume of production by region from 2016 to 2028. Pricing analysis is included in the report according to each type from the year 2016 to 2028, manufacturer from 2016 to 2022, region from 2016 to 2022, and global price from 2016 to 2028.

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage in these regions, from 2015 to 2028, covering

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.)

● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam)

● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.)

● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Forecast by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2022 to 2028. Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Share, distributors, major suppliers, changing price patterns and the supply chain of raw materials is highlighted in the report. Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Size (sales, revenue) forecast by regions and countries from 2022 to 2028 of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage industry.The global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market Growth is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2028. In 2022, the market was growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Trend for Development and marketing channels are analysed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered. Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Report also mentions market share accrued by each product in the Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market, along with the production growth.

Study Objectives of this report are:

● To study and analyze the global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market size (value and volume) by company, key regions/countries, products and application, history data from 2016 to 2020, and forecast to 2028.

● To understand the structure of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage market by identifying its various subsegments.

● To share detailed information about the key factors influencing the growth of the market (growth potential, opportunities, drivers, industry-specific challenges and risks).

● Focuses on the key global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the sales volume, value, market share, market competition landscape, SWOT analysis and development plans in next few years.

● To analyze the Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage with respect to individual growth trends, future prospects, and their contribution to the total market.

● To project the value and volume of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage submarkets, with respect to key regions (along with their respective key countries).

● To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

● To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

Key Stakeholders

● Raw material suppliers

● Distributors/traders/wholesalers/suppliers

● Regulatory bodies, including government agencies and NGO

● Commercial research and development (RandD) institutions

● Importers and exporters

● Government organizations, research organizations, and consulting firms

● Trade associations and industry bodies

● End-use industries

This Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

● Which Manufacturing Technology is used for Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage? What Developments Are Going On in That Technology? Which Trends Are Causing These Developments?

● Who Are the Global Key Players in This Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market? What are Their Company Profile, Their Product Information, and Contact Information?

● What Was Global Market Status of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market? What Was Capacity, Production Value, Cost and PROFIT of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market?

● What Is Current Market Status of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Industry? What’s Market Competition in This Industry, Both Company, and Country Wise? What’s Market Analysis of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market by Taking Applications and Types in Consideration?

● What Are Projections of Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export?

● What Is Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Chain Analysis by Upstream Raw Materials and Downstream Industry?

● What Is Economic Impact On Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Industry? What are Global Macroeconomic Environment Analysis Results? What Are Global Macroeconomic Environment Development Trends?

● What Are Market Dynamics of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market? What Are Challenges and Opportunities?

● What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, and Marketing Channels for Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Industry?

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Detailed TOC of Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Report 2022

1 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage
1.2 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028
1.2.2 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage For Automobile
1.2.3 Fixed Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage
1.3 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Segment by Application
1.3.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028
1.3.2 New Energy Vehicles
1.3.3 Research Institutions
1.3.4 Emergency Response System
1.3.5 Chemistry Companies
1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects
1.4.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.2 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.3 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5 Global Market Size by Region
1.5.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.5.2 North America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.3 Europe Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.4 China Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.5 Japan Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2 Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.2 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.3 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
2.4 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.5 Manufacturers Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types
2.6 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.6.1 Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Concentration Rate
2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Players Market Share by Revenue
2.6.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion
3 Production Capacity by Region
3.1 Global Production Capacity of Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.2 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.3 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.4 North America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production
3.4.1 North America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.4.2 North America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.5 Europe Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production
3.5.1 Europe Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.5.2 Europe Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.6 China Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production
3.6.1 China Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.6.2 China Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.7 Japan Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production
3.7.1 Japan Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.7.2 Japan Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
4 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Region
4.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Region
4.1.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Region
4.1.2 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption Market Share by Region
4.2 North America
4.2.1 North America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Country
4.2.2 United States
4.2.3 Canada
4.3 Europe
4.3.1 Europe Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Country
4.3.2 Germany
4.3.3 France
4.3.4 U.K.
4.3.5 Italy
4.3.6 Russia
4.4 Asia Pacific
4.4.1 Asia Pacific Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Region
4.4.2 China
4.4.3 Japan
4.4.4 South Korea
4.4.5 China Taiwan
4.4.6 Southeast Asia
4.4.7 India
4.4.8 Australia
4.5 Latin America
4.5.1 Latin America Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Consumption by Country
4.5.2 Mexico
4.5.3 Brazil
5 Segment by Type
5.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Price by Type (2017-2022)
6 Segment by Application
6.1 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage Price by Application (2017-2022)
7 Key Companies Profiled

Continued….

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Study Shows Abundant Opportunities for Hydrogen in a Future Integrated Energy System

H2@Scale Initiative Finds Achievable 2X to 4X U.S. Hydrogen Market Growth

Oct. 8, 2020

35

New research from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) identifies key opportunities for hydrogen to provide synergies for the U.S. energy system and quantifies their potential impacts on hydrogen markets.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, with many current and potential uses in the chemical and refining industries, manufacturing, and transportation. Producing it can also help resolve challenges related to integrating high levels of variable renewables on the grid. The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office in DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is leading the H2@Scale Initiative to advance affordable hydrogen production, transport, storage, and utilization in multiple energy sectors.

Through the initiative, NREL analysts—in partnership with researchers from Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and industry experts—assessed the technoeconomic potential of realizing an integrated hydrogen energy system by the mid-21st century for the 48 contiguous U.S. states. The findings are published in a new report, The Technical and Economic Potential of the H2@Scale Concept within the United States.

“The H2@Scale concept is based on using hydrogen as an energy intermediate to integrate sectors in the energy system. Hydrogen can be an alternative to current energy sources for industry and transportation and, by providing a larger market and flexible load for electricity, can boost deployment of renewable energy generation,” said Mark Ruth, NREL analyst and lead author of the report. “This study shows we have ample resources to do it—and there are many benefits.”

The H2@Scale Concept

In the H2@Scale vision, hydrogen would act as an energy infrastructure complementing the electric grid, as well as play a larger role in the industrial and transport sectors. Today, the U.S. demand for hydrogen is 10 million metric tons annually. It is primarily used in the industrial sector for oil refining, fertilizer manufacturing, and chemical production. New uses for hydrogen that were evaluated in the report include steelmaking, synthetic fuels, energy storage, injection into the natural gas system, and fuel cell vehicles. The study characterized the economic potential of hydrogen consumption in current and emerging sectors, given R&D advances, and varying prices of natural gas and electricity. By 2050, the study estimates that U.S. demand for hydrogen could increase to 22–41 million metric tons/year.

 Schematic illustration of the H2@Scale concept.

One of the methods of hydrogen generation evaluated in the study is electrolysis, which splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms using electricity. Electrolysis has low emissions when the electricity is generated using renewable or nuclear power but is currently more expensive than producing hydrogen from natural gas. The study evaluated the potential for electrolysis based on R&D that reduces electrolyzer cost and integration of electrolyzers with the bulk electric grid and with nuclear power plants.

Because low-temperature electrolyzers only require a few seconds to turn on and operate at maximum capacity, hydrogen can also complement variable renewable energy sources by mitigating intermittency issues. It can serve as a responsive load on the electric grid, enhance grid stability, reduce curtailment, and create an additional revenue stream for electricity generators. This functionality can thus support increasing renewable penetration. For instance, the H2@Scale analysis indicates that an increase in wind generation by up to 2X is feasible given growth in hydrogen demand and the use of electrolyzers to monetize low-cost, intermittently available electricity.

 This electrolyzer at NREL’s Energy Systems Integration Facility converts solar-generated energy into hydrogen.

Meeting Future Demand

This report is the first comprehensive treatise of the economic potential of future multi-sectoral hydrogen demand in the United States. The analysts identified potential for a 2- to 4-fold increase in potential hydrogen demand in five future scenarios. Production of hydrogen in these scenarios would require 4%–17% of U.S. primary energy use, if R&D targets are met and barriers are overcome.

The five scenarios were based on key assumptions like resource prices, market conditions, hydrogen technology research and development, and fueling infrastructure availability. The Reference scenario uses today’s conditions, assuming little technology or market development. The Lowest-Cost Electrolysis scenario assumes the most aggressive technology and market development, with the three remaining scenarios falling within this range. 

Based on the assumptions and prices users will pay for hydrogen, the market potential could total 22–41 million metric tons annually. Key drivers of this growth include natural gas prices and lowering the cost of low-temperature electrolysis, although demand can increase with other low-cost hydrogen options.

Most of the growth will likely take place in urban areas, but metals refining, biofuels production, and methanol production could increase in rural areas. 

Remaining Questions

To realize the potential of the H2@Scale concept, continued research, development, and deployment will be required, particularly for electrolyzer technology. In addition, continuing evolution of electricity markets that would allow electrolyzers to monetize the energy and grid services that they can provide would enable considerable opportunities. Future analysis should consider regional issues, transport and storage costs, and key factors in economic transitions to grow the identified markets.

Learn more about NREL’s energy analysis and hydrogen and fuel cells research.

Mass production of renewable fuels will be a key component in decarbonising the planet. The key to solving this global challenge is the new hydrogen economy, in which so-called green hydrogen is used directly as fuel or developed into other synthetic fuels. Economics will determine the optimum choice of future fuel for each application.

Global energy production turns steadily towards a 100% renewable energy future. In enabling this transition, solar and wind power hold great promise, but an energy source that may have an even greater impact on a fully renewable energy future is so-called ‘green’ hydrogen.

Hydrogen gas can be manufactured from water by using electricity to split water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen. Green hydrogen refers to hydrogen that is produced with renewable electricity such as solar and wind power. The hydrogen can then be used directly as fuel or as raw material for other renewable fuels.

Today’s global energy industry is not built to use pure hydrogen, so the widespread adoption of hydrogen fuel will require massive infrastructure investments in addition to new industrial regulations.  However, hydrogen is also a key building block for other carbon-neutral synthetic fuels that are needed to accelerate the decarbonisation of energy production. Power-to-X (P2X) -technology can be used to produce green hydrogen, but also synthetic methane, methanol, ammonia, kerosene, gasoline and diesel.

Sushil Purohit, President, Wärtsilä Energy & EVP Wärtsilä points out the responsibility of politicians, in addition to the major role of investors and companies such as Wärtsilä, when it comes to questions like infrastructure. “Countless governments have set ambitious carbon neutral targets, but these are yet to be matched by clear strategies and firm action plans,” he says.

Flexible fuel source

Using pure hydrogen as a fuel will require new infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, hydrogen-ready engines and other power generation technologies, as well as hydrogen-powered cars, all of which will take time to design and deploy. While this infrastructure is being built, companies can leverage P2X to produce, for example, synthetic methane and use it as a drop-in fuel.

Around the world, many countries are envisioning a hydrogen economy in which green hydrogen is used as a fuel for industry, power generation, heat and transportation. In the future, green hydrogen and other carbon-neutral synthetic fuels could replace, for example, gasoline as a transport fuel or natural gas as fuel for power generation.

“Hydrogen and synthetic fuels through Power-to-X are key components in reaching a 100% renewable energy future”, says Sushil Purohit. “Our team focuses on long-term planning to understand the optimal way to build energy systems and power generation technology in the future. Power systems with a high share of renewables need to be balanced in the most sustainable way possible, first with natural gas, and later with future fuels such as hydrogen.”

Renewable electricity is key

Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has a long history of use in various industrial processes. In the last few years, it has come to the forefront as part of decarbonisation and the transition to renewable energy sources. “For many processes, for example in the chemical and steel industries, using green hydrogen instead of grey hydrogen as a fuel is basically the only possible and most viable way to reduce emissions in the future,” says Ville Rimali, Director, Growth and Development, Africa & Europe, Wärtsilä Energy. “Further into the future, green hydrogen will also offer a lot of possibilities for decarbonising power generation and transportation.”

As the production of green hydrogen depends on using excess renewable electricity, the geographic availability of cost-effective green energy is a key factor that will shape the global hydrogen economy. “At the moment, generating hydrogen from water with solar power is the most economical way, so it’s no surprise that green hydrogen projects are currently being undertaken in regions such as the Middle East, Australia, North Africa and Chile,” notes Rimali. “The challenge is that these areas don’t correspond to the locations that would have the most demand for green hydrogen fuel.”

Scaling up the global infrastructure

To meet supply with demand, hydrogen needs to be transported to its final place of use. Pressurised storage as in gaseous form is currently the only feasible way of storing and transporting hydrogen on an industrial scale, but this method offers a relatively low energy density and is not suitable for long-term storage. As a way of meeting this challenge, hydrogen can be combined into another compound such as ammonia for transport and storage. In the end, the economics of manufacture and logistics will determine the optimum choice of fuel.

“The scaling up of global hydrogen production and infrastructure will take time,” says Ville Rimali. “In certain sectors such as the marine industry, companies will essentially have no other option but to adopt some form of hydrogen-based fuel in order to meet their emission targets. As a result, these customers will also be ready to invest more in moving towards hydrogen-based operations. At the other end of the spectrum, we have industries such as power generation that have a wider range and more mature decarbonisation options, so in these applications green hydrogen will need to be even more competitive from a cost standpoint and its adoption will take a bit more time.”

Europe leads the way

At the moment, the move towards a hydrogen economy has largely been driven by Europe. “The European Union is investing heavily to ensure leadership in this area and to become the global technology hub and dominant market for green hydrogen,” says Ville Rimali. “Another factor in the EU’s favour is Europe’s extensive gas pipeline network that could potentially be converted for hydrogen use in the future. Many areas such as northern Germany also have large underground gas storage facilities that could be upgraded to be used for hydrogen.”

Ultimately, the key to a successful entry into the new hydrogen economy will depend on a finely tuned balance of geographic, economic and technical factors, as companies and countries seek the optimum combination of where and how to manufacture, transport and use the new renewable fuel source. Rimali notes that even the Nordic countries could find a role to play.

“At the moment, everyone is looking towards Africa and the Middle East for green hydrogen production, but the Nordic countries actually have a lot of potential since they have access to competitively priced wind and hydro power. Unlike solar power, these energy sources can power hydrogen production around the clock, offsetting the initial investment with a higher capacity utilisation rate. So I think the Nordics would do well to take a more strategic role in seizing these opportunities.”

Whatever the future brings, it is certain that green hydrogen has a high potential for becoming the fuel of the future, helping societies move towards decarbonisation. Wärtsilä wants to take an active role in exploring how hydrogen can be used as a fuel for balancing power generation.

“The market for hydrogen engines will emerge in the years to come as the use of fossil fuels is gradually reduced and new technology around future fuels matures,” says Sushil Purohit. “We want to make sure our technology is future-proof, ready to help nations balance their cleaner power systems first with natural gas, and later with 100% renewable fuels.”

Hydrogen and energy have a long shared history – powering the first internal combustion engines over 200 years ago to becoming an integral part of the modern refining industry. It is light, storable, energy-dense, and produces no direct emissions of pollutants or greenhouse gases. But for hydrogen to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent, such as transport, buildings and power generation.

The Future of Hydrogen provides an extensive and independent survey of hydrogen that lays out where things stand now; the ways in which hydrogen can help to achieve a clean, secure and affordable energy future; and how we can go about realising its potential.

Hydrogen is today enjoying unprecedented momentum. The world should not miss this unique chance to make hydrogen an important part of our clean and secure energy future.

Dr Fatih Birol

Key findings

Supplying hydrogen to industrial users is now a major business around the world. Demand for hydrogen, which has grown more than threefold since 1975, continues to rise – almost entirely supplied from fossil fuels, with 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal going to hydrogen production.

As a consequence, production of hydrogen is responsible for CO2 emissions of around 830 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, equivalent to the CO2 emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia combined.

Demand for hydrogen

Global demand for pure hydrogen, 1975-2018

Open

Mt

1975198019851990199520002005201020152018e01020304050607080

IEA. All Rights Reserved

  • Refining
  • Ammonia
  • Other

The number of countries with polices that directly support investment in hydrogen technologies is increasing, along with the number of sectors they target.

There are around 50 targets, mandates and policy incentives in place today that direct support hydrogen, with the majority focused on transport.

Over the past few years, global spending on hydrogen energy research, development and demonstration by national governments has risen, although it remains lower than the peak in 2008.

Growing support

Current policy support for hydrogen deployment, 2018

Open

Number of countriesPassenger carsVehicle refuelling stationsBusesElectrolysersTrucksBuildings heat and powerPower generationIndustryOther fleet vehicles012345678910111213141516

IEA. All Rights Reserved

  • Incentives without targets
  • Targets without incentives
  • Combined incentives with targets

Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels and biomass, from water, or from a mix of both. Natural gas is currently the primary source of hydrogen production, accounting for around three quarters of the annual global dedicated hydrogen production of around 70 million tonnes. This accounts for about 6% of global natural gas use. Gas is followed by coal, due to its dominant role in China, and a small fraction is produced from from the use of oil and electricity.

The production cost of hydrogen from natural gas is influenced by a range of technical and economic factors, with gas prices and capital expenditures being the two most important.

Fuel costs are the largest cost component, accounting for between 45% and 75% of production costs. Low gas prices in the Middle East, Russia and North America give rise to some of the lowest hydrogen production costs. Gas importers like Japan, Korea, China and India have to contend with higher gas import prices, and that makes for higher hydrogen production costs.

Hydrogen production

Hydrogen production costs using natural gas in selected regions, 2018

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USD/kgH

EuropeRussiaChinaMiddle Eastno CCUSwith CCUSno CCUSwith CCUSno CCUSwith CCUSno CCUSwith CCUSno CCUSwith CCUS00.511.522.5United States

IEA. All Rights Reserved

  • CAPEX
  • OPEX
  • Natural gas

While less than 0.1% of global dedicated hydrogen production today comes from water electrolysis, with declining costs for renewable electricity, in particular from solar PV and wind, there is growing interest in electrolytic hydrogen.

Dedicated electricity generation from renewables or nuclear power offers an alternative to the use of grid electricity for hydrogen production.

With declining costs for renewable electricity, in particular from solar PV and wind, interest is growing in electrolytic hydrogen and there have been several demonstration projects in recent years. Producing all of today’s dedicated hydrogen output from electricity would result in an electricity demand of 3 600 TWh, more than the total annual electricity generation of the European Union.

Keeping an eye on costs

Hydrogen production costs by production source, 2018

Open

USD/kg

Natural gasNatural gas with CCUSCoalRenewables012345678

IEA. All Rights Reserved

With declining costs for solar PV and wind generation, building electrolysers at locations with excellent renewable resource conditions could become a low-cost supply option for hydrogen, even after taking into account the transmission and distribution costs of transporting hydrogen from (often remote) renewables locations to the end-users.

  • Hydrogen use today is dominated by industry, namely: oil refining, ammonia production, methanol production and steel production. Virtually all of this hydrogen is supplied using fossil fuels, so there is significant potential for emissions reductions from clean hydrogen.
  • In transport, the competitiveness of hydrogen fuel cell cars depends on fuel cell costs and refuelling stations while for trucks the priority is to reduce the delivered price of hydrogen. Shipping and aviation have limited low-carbon fuel options available and represent an opportunity for hydrogen-based fuels.
  • In buildings, hydrogen could be blended into existing natural gas networks, with the highest potential in multifamily and commercial buildings, particularly in dense cities while longer-term prospects could include the direct use of hydrogen in hydrogen boilers or fuel cells.
  • In power generation, hydrogen is one of the leading options for storing renewable energy, and hydrogen and ammonia can be used in gas turbines to increase power system flexibility. Ammonia could also be used in coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions.

Various uses for hydrogen

Hydrogen is already widely used in some industries, but it has not yet realised its potential to support clean energy transitions. Ambitious, targeted and near-term action is needed to further overcome barriers and reduce costs.

The IEA has identified four value chains that offer springboard opportunities to scale up hydrogen supply and demand, building on existing industries, infrastructure and policies. Governments and other stakeholders will be able to identify which of these offer the most near-term potential in their geographical, industrial and energy system contexts.

Regardless of which of these four key opportunities are pursued – or other value chains not listed here – the full policy package of five action areas listed above will be needed. Furthermore, governments – at regional, national or community levels – will benefit from international cooperation with others who are working to drive forward similar markets for hydrogen.

Near term, practical opportunities for policy action

Executive summary

The time is right to tap into hydrogen’s potential to play a key role in a clean, secure and affordable energy future. At the request of the government of Japan under its G20 presidency, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has produced this landmark report to analyse the current state of play for hydrogen and to offer guidance on its future development. The report finds that clean hydrogen is currently enjoying unprecedented political and business momentum, with the number of policies and projects around the world expanding rapidly. It concludes that now is the time to scale up technologies and bring down costs to allow hydrogen to become widely used. The pragmatic and actionable recommendations to governments and industry that are provided will make it possible to take full advantage of this increasing momentum.

Hydrogen can help tackle various critical energy challenges. It offers ways to decarbonise a range of sectors – including long-haul transport, chemicals, and iron and steel – where it is proving difficult to meaningfully reduce emissions. It can also help improve air quality and strengthen energy security. Despite very ambitious international climate goals, global energy-related CO2 emissions reached an all time high in 2018. Outdoor air pollution also remains a pressing problem, with around 3 million people dying prematurely each year.

Hydrogen is versatile. Technologies already available today enable hydrogen to produce, store, move and use energy in different ways. A wide variety of fuels are able to produce hydrogen, including renewables, nuclear, natural gas, coal and oil. It can be transported as a gas by pipelines or in liquid form by ships, much like liquefied natural gas (LNG). It can be transformed into electricity and methane to power homes and feed industry, and into fuels for cars, trucks, ships and planes.

Hydrogen can enable renewables to provide an even greater contribution. It has the potential to help with variable output from renewables, like solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind, whose availability is not always well matched with demand. Hydrogen is one of the leading options for storing energy from renewables and looks promising to be a lowest-cost option for storing electricity over days, weeks or even months. Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels can transport energy from renewables over long distances – from regions with abundant solar and wind resources, such as Australia or Latin America, to energy-hungry cities thousands of kilometres away.

There have been false starts for hydrogen in the past; this time could be different. The recent successes of solar PV, wind, batteries and electric vehicles have shown that policy and technology innovation have the power to build global clean energy industries. With a global energy sector in flux, the versatility of hydrogen is attracting stronger interest from a diverse group of governments and companies. Support is coming from governments that both import and export energy as well as renewable electricity suppliers, industrial gas producers, electricity and gas utilities, automakers, oil and gas companies, major engineering firms, and cities. Investments in hydrogen can help foster new technological and industrial development in economies around the world, creating skilled jobs.

Hydrogen can be used much more widely. Today, hydrogen is used mostly in oil refining and for the production of fertilisers. For it to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it also needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent at the moment, such as transport, buildings and power generation.

However, clean, widespread use of hydrogen in global energy transitions faces several challenges:

  • Producing hydrogen from low-carbon energy is costly at the moment. IEA analysis finds that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable electricity could fall 30% by 2030 as a result of declining costs of renewables and the scaling up of hydrogen production. Fuel cells, refuelling equipment and electrolysers (which produce hydrogen from electricity and water) can all benefit from mass manufacturing.
  • The development of hydrogen infrastructure is slow and holding back widespread adoption. Hydrogen prices for consumers are highly dependent on how many refuelling stations there are, how often they are used and how much hydrogen is delivered per day. Tackling this is likely to require planning and coordination that brings together national and local governments, industry and investors.
  • Hydrogen is almost entirely supplied from natural gas and coal today. Hydrogen is already with us at industrial scale all around the world, but its production is responsible for annual CO2 emissions equivalent to those of Indonesia and the United Kingdom combined. Harnessing this existing scale on the way to a clean energy future requires both the capture of CO2 from hydrogen production from fossil fuels and greater supplies of hydrogen from clean electricity.
  • Regulations currently limit the development of a clean hydrogen industry. Government and industry must work together to ensure existing regulations are not an unnecessary barrier to investment. Trade will benefit from common international standards for the safety of transporting and storing large volumes of hydrogen and for tracing the environmental impacts of different hydrogen supplies.

The IEA has identified four near-term opportunities to boost hydrogen on the path towards its clean, widespread use. Focusing on these real-world springboards could help hydrogen achieve the necessary scale to bring down costs and reduce risks for governments and the private sector. While each opportunity has a distinct purpose, all four also mutually reinforce one another.

  1. Make industrial ports the nerve centres for scaling up the use of clean hydrogen. Today, much of the refining and chemicals production that uses hydrogen based on fossil fuels is already concentrated in coastal industrial zones around the world, such as the North Sea in Europe, the Gulf Coast in North America and southeastern China. Encouraging these plants to shift to cleaner hydrogen production would drive down overall costs. These large sources of hydrogen supply can also fuel ships and trucks serving the ports and power other nearby industrial facilities like steel plants.
  2. Build on existing infrastructure, such as millions of kilometres of natural gas pipelines. Introducing clean hydrogen to replace just 5% of the volume of countries’ natural gas supplies would significantly boost demand for hydrogen and drive down costs.
  3. Expand hydrogen in transport through fleets, freight and corridors. Powering high-mileage cars, trucks and buses to carry passengers and goods along popular routes can make fuel-cell vehicles more competitive.
  4. Launch the hydrogen trade’s first international shipping routes. Lessons from the successful growth of the global LNG market can be leveraged. International hydrogen trade needs to start soon if it is to make an impact on the global energy system.

International cooperation is vital to accelerate the growth of versatile, clean hydrogen around the world. If governments work to scale up hydrogen in a coordinated way, it can help to spur investments in factories and infrastructure that will bring down costs and enable the sharing of knowledge and best practices. Trade in hydrogen will benefit from common international standards. As the global energy organisation that covers all fuels and all technologies, the IEA will continue to provide rigorous analysis and policy advice to support international cooperation and to conduct effective tracking of progress in the years ahead.

As a roadmap for the future, we are offering seven key recommendations to help governments, companies and others to seize this chance to enable clean hydrogen to fulfil its long-term potential.

The IEA’s 7 key recommendations to scale up hydrogen

  1. Establish a role for hydrogen in long-term energy strategies. National, regional and city governments can guide future expectations. Companies should also have clear long-term goals. Key sectors include refining, chemicals, iron and steel, freight and long-distance transport, buildings, and power generation and storage.
  2. Stimulate commercial demand for clean hydrogen. Clean hydrogen technogies are available but costs remain challenging. Policies that create sustainable markets for clean hydrogen, especially to reduce emissions from fossil fuel-based hydrogen, are needed to underpin investments by suppliers, distributors and users. By scaling up supply chains, these investments can drive cost reductions, whether from lowcarbon electricity or fossil fuels with carbon capture, utilisation and storage.
  3. Address investment risks of first-movers. New applications for hydrogen, as well as clean hydrogen supply and infrastructure projects, stand at the riskiest point of the deployment curve. Targeted and time-limited loans, guarantees and other tools can help the private sector to invest, learn and share risks and rewards.
  4. Support R&D to bring down costs. Alongside cost reductions from economies of scale, R&D is crucial to lower costs and improve performance, including for fuel cells, hydrogen-based fuels and electrolysers (the technology that produces hydrogen from water). Government actions, including use of public funds, are critical in setting the research agenda, taking risks and attracting private capital for innovation.
  5. Eliminate unnecessary regulatory barriers and harmonise standards. Project developers face hurdles where regulations and permit requirements are unclear, unfit for new purposes, or inconsistent across sectors and countries. Sharing knowledge and harmonising standards is key, including for equipment, safety and certifying emissions from different sources. Hydrogen’s complex supply chains mean governments, companies, communities and civil society need to consult regularly.
  6. Engage internationally and track progress. Enhanced international cooperation is needed across the board but especially on standards, sharing of good practices and cross-border infrastructure. Hydrogen production and use need to be monitored and reported on a regular basis to keep track of progress towards longterm goals.
  7. Focus on four key opportunities to further increase momentum over the next decade. By building on current policies, infrastructure and skills, these mutually supportive opportunities can help to scale up infrastructure development, enhance investor confidence and lower costs:
  • Make the most of existing industrial ports to turn them into hubs for lowercost, lower-carbon hydrogen.
  • Use existing gas infrastructure to spur new clean hydrogen supplies.
  • Support transport fleets, freight and corridors to make fuel-cell vehicles more competitive.
  • Establish the first shipping routes to kick-start the international hydrogen trade. 

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